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application of Methods of Multivariate Analysis in Gem Identification

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[[abstract]]摘 要 本研究是以統計方法作紅寶石鑑定分析為主體。首先，進行紅寶石樣本第一批次(十六個)實務分析，得一初步結論。但恐因樣本量太少，造成分析誤差，為了增加本研究的信度，我們進行第二批次的樣本分析(含第一批次，共五十三個)，樣本的來源取自寶石的大盤市場、零售市場、個人鑑定所受委託鑑定的物件，及個人多年隨機購得之樣本。 依據 B.W.Anderson ; Cornelins S. Hulbut,Jr.; Richard T.Liddicoat,Jr;E.J.Gübelin. 等的寶石鑑定理論、步驟與方法，由筆者的綜合研判，得到紅寶石實績群的數據，依據這些客觀的資料，經鑑定者依實務經驗做主觀分析，得出結果。為了印證實務鑑定所得結果，及獲得客觀結論，此項研究中，我們應用統計方法中的多變量解析手法之數量化2類來分析研究。在諸多鑑定項目中，以折射率值、比重、螢光反應、切工、內部特徵，為五個說明變數，並得判別式: Y=0.5167X11-0.5167X12-0.0171X21+0.0171X22-2.5293E-07X31 +2.5293E-07X32-0.0007X41+0.0007X42+0.5018X51-0.5018X52 且命中率為98.11%;也獲得五個項目的重要性依序為內部特徵、折射率、比重、切工、螢光反應。本研究證明應用統計方法，可以在鑑定實務中，可因項目重要性的權重，獲得實質的助益，更可將實得的數據，代入判別式而獲得客觀的結論。應用統計方法來分析寶石，在寶石學研究領堿中是屬首例，這次是以紅寶石為例，我們相信也可以應用於翡翠、祖母綠．．．．等其他寶石的分析判斷。這對寶石學之學習者、寶石鑑定者、珠寶業者甚至是對寶石收藏有興趣的人是有益的。 關鍵詞:紅寶石、數量化2類、折射率、內部特徵、多變量解析方法、寶石。

[[abstract]]Abstract Based on statistical methods, the analysis of identification of ruby is the main purpose in this theme. Owing to the small sample size of first lot (sixteen pieces) that can`t make this study validity , we use the second lot (fifty-three pieces including the first lot) collected from ore sources 、wholesale、retail , gem laboratory and personal collection to do this research. Each piece of ruby is judged first and conclusion is made by the author empirically and subjectively,according to B.W.Anderson ; Peter G.Read,Cornelius S. Hulbut, Jr. And Richard T.Liddicoats' Gem indentification processes and methods. In order to obtain objective judgement , “ Quantification Theory Ⅱ”of multivariate analysis is used for comparing with author’s conclusion. In many items of identifying gems, five out of them — refractive index、measurement、specific gravity measurement、fluorescence identification 、cutting characters and microscope observation — are chosen as independent variable . Applying statistical method, we get an arithmetic expression as follow: Y=0.5167X11-0.5167X12-0.0171X21+0.0171X22- 2.5293-07X31 +2.5293E-07X32-0.0007X41+0.0007X42+0.5018X51-0.5018X52 The accuracy of this expression is 98.11% and the importance of five items are refractive index measurement , microscope observation , specific gravity measurement , cutting charaters and fluorescence identification in descending order. These results prove that we can apply “ Quantification Theory Ⅱ “ to get importance of items and obtain objective judgment in gem identification either on practical or factual areas. It is the first time that the statistical method is used for identifying ruby in jewelry field. We believe that this method can be used for identifying the other gems as well. The arithmetic expression found by this method will be very helpful in jewelry industry, gemology learner, gem examiner and people who are interesting in gem collection. Key Words: ruby, Quantification Theory type II, refractive index, microscope observation, methods of multivariate analysis.

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