Selected Article

Title

知識管理績效指標之建構與衡量:跨功能之量表設計與實證研究

Construction and Measurement for Knowledge Management Performance:A Cross-functional Scale Design and Empirical Survey

Description

[[abstract]] 中外各國均已邁入知識經濟之時代,我國企業界與學術界亦開始關注企業與產業之知識管理議題。不過,文獻對知識管理議題之研究,大多偏向知識管理之「作業面」,但對於知識管理之「策略面」,亦即企業進行知識管理時之策略方向,卻著墨甚少。此外,文獻多半將知識管理議題單獨論之,甚少與其他功能績效相聯結。另外,大多文獻習慣將知識管理議題鎖定在較具競爭力之科技性產業,對於競爭優勢處於萌發階段、轉型階段與衰退階段者,則相對涉入較少。最後,研究對知識管理議題尚未與知識績效面相聯結,而文獻對知識績效之建構亦缺乏完整性。據此,本研究主要的內容包括下列數點: 1.嘗試將策略觀點導入知識管理研究之中,探討知識管理策略對知識管理績效之影響。 2.有鑒於文獻多以描述性研究或小樣本個案研究為主要研究方法,缺乏較大樣本之實證調查。因此本研究計畫以問卷調查法,實證探究知識管理議題,以求提升知識管理文獻之外部效度與一般性,並嘗試將知識績效予以建構與衡量,以瞭解各項議題對知識績效之效果。 3.本研究之調查部分將包括居處各種優勢狀態下之多項產業,包括優勢持續、優勢轉型、優勢衰退與優勢萌生產業,以比較各產業間在各議題上之差異,以及各構念(construct)間效果之異同。 本研究以SAS統計軟體為其分析工具,由研究者整理文獻並加以探討後,建立本研究操作性定義,並以李克特五點量表設計出本研究問卷。本研究利用郵寄問卷的方式,寄發天下1000大其中之四種產業,總共寄出600份問卷,經回收整理後的有效問卷共為143份,問卷回收率為23.83%,並經由電腦統計加以分析資料。 本研究之研究結果發現,知識策略屬性與知識績效具有顯著關係。至於所探討四個部門績效(即效標)方面,在人力資源績效、製造(生產)績效及研發績效均與知識績效有著高度顯著關係,惟獨市場行銷績效並未得到顯著關係。此外,在不同發展階段之產業間的知識策略屬性差異並不大,而不同發展階段之產業間的知識績效的差異亦無顯著差異。最後,本研究分別對企業界與學術界提出幾點研究建議,以利後續研究者加以參考。本研究廣泛探討知識管理議題,並將知識管理之策略面、知識績效,及企業功能性績效面之間的關係相互釐清,應可對後續知識管理學術及實務具有貢獻。

[[abstract]]While the era of "knowledge economy" is being ignited, our practitioners and academicians begin to focus on the issues of knowledge management (KM). But after reviewing most of the KM literature, we may find that they tend to work on the "operational perspective" of KM, and neglect researching "strategic perspective (KS)". Moreover, most literature sorely explored the KM issues of those advantageous hi-tech industries, and failed to study the industries of different advantage stages, such as advantage- sustaining, advantage- transition, advantage- growing and advantage- declining industries. Besides, related literature in question still failed to construct and measure the Knowledge Performance (KP), and neglected to explore how the KM activities influence KP. Thus, this study attempts to work on the following topics: 1.This study will conduct "strategic perspectives" into the KM study, and explore how knowledge strategy (KS) will affect KP. 2.Since most KM articles tended to employ case study or small-scale survey as the objectives of study, this study uses larger-sample sampling to clarify the previous topics. This study attempts to construct and measure KP, and accordingly explores how the above issues influence KP. 3.This study not only takes those hi-tech industries as the samples, but also involve the industries that locate in different stages of advantage, i.e., advantage-sustaining, advantage-transition, advantage-growing and advantage-declining industries. It is reasonable to make a comparative study. The primary goal of this study is to understand the KP’s model, including the measurement and construction to point out the shortcomings of the present situation and to make suggestions for the future direction. After sampling Top 1000’s firms ranked by the Common Wealth Magazine and mailing out 600 questionnaires, this study presented a detailed analysis of its result with collected 23.83% of questionnaires, which were processed by SAS software, and obtained the findings as follows. The attributes of knowledge strategy have come to an evident correlation with knowledge performance. As for the performances of the four functions this study explores, strong correlation with knowledge performance are also found in human resource, production, and R&D, except in marketing. Besides, there is only partly difference between the attributes of knowledge strategy among the industries that locate in different stages, and no correlation with the difference of knowledge performance. Further, the study also presents some research suggestions as reference for the future researchers in business and academic circles. Hopefully, it may bring contribution towards academic and practical concerns through extensive exploration of knowledge management and clarification for the correlation between knowledge performance and functional performance of enterprises.

[[note]]【中文部份】 1.尤克強,2001,知識管理與創新,台北:天下文化。 2.王俊隆,1998,「從高階主管觀點設計資料倉儲之定義語言」,靜宜大學管研所未出版碩士論文。 3.王美音譯,1998,知識創新之泉-智價企業的經營,台北:遠流出版社。 4.方世杰、鄭仲興,1999,「合作研發過程中組織學習機制的建立與學習績效之研究」,1999年科技管理研討會論文集。 5.方世杰、方世榮,2000,「知識管理:觀念架構的建立」,商管科技學刊,1(3),pp. 355-374. 6.古永嘉,1996,企業研究方法,台北:華泰書局。 7.尹哲庸,1998,「技術環境,組織特質與企業人力資源管理策略關係之研究」,輔仁大學管理學研究所未出版碩士論文。 8.花櫻芬,1996,「高科技事業中技術知識特質與知識資源吸收之研究」,政治大學科管所未出版碩士論文。 9.李仁芳、花櫻芬,1997,「高科技事業中技術知識類型與知識交流網絡模型」,科技管理學刊,2卷1期,pp.75-123。 10.李仁芳、蘇錦夥,1994,「台灣製造業之生產合作網路與產研合作研發網絡」,第三屆管理研討會論文集,台北:輔仁大學。 11.李仁芳,1998,「邁向智價經濟體(Knowledge—Based Economy) ─ 創新求勝」,產學研合作創新與國家競爭力專輯,行政院國家科學委員會,台北。 12.李長貴,1997,績效管理與績效評估,台北:華泰文化事業有限公司。 13.李宗澤,2001,「知識環境、知識策略對知識管理事務及知識績效之影響-以一般製造業、科技製造業與服務業之研究」,義守大學管理研究所未出版碩士論文。 14.林淳一,1999,「建立知識管理資料庫以提昇企業競爭力之研究」,大葉大學事業經營研究所未出版碩士論文。 15.汪昭芬,2000,「組織學習、知識創造、知識蘊蓄與創新績效之關聯性研究:科技製造業、一般製造業及服務業之實證」,成功大學企業管理學系未出版碩士論文。 16.吳家娜,1998,「企業組織價值觀對製造策略競爭要項之影響研究」,成功大學企業管理學系未出版碩士論文。 17.吳思華,2001,「知識經濟、知識資本與知識管理」,知識資本在台灣,pp. 11-50。 18.吳思華,1998,「知識流通對產業創新的影響」,產業科技研討會論文集,台北市:政大,pp. 2-42。 19.吳美勳,1998,「組織記憶與學習機制關係之研究」,政治大學企研所未出版碩士論文。 20.吳萬益、譚大純與汪昭芬,1999,「企業智價理論在組織創新能力上之應用以『知識創造論』與『組織學習論』為觀點之實證研究」,1999科技管理年會暨研討會論文集,高雄,中山大學管理學院。 21.林淳一,1999,「建立知識管理資料庫以提昇企業競爭力之研究」,大葉大學事業經營研究所未出版碩士論文。 22.林進財1999,「資料倉儲建構之管理課題:以電信業為例」,大葉大學事業經營研究所未出版碩士輪文。 23.林建偉,2000,「生產績效評比模式的建立」,台灣科技大學資訊管理系未出版碩士論文。 24.侯勝宗,1995,「連鎖服務業合作網路中知識擴散模式之研究」,政治大學企研所未出版碩士論文。 25.胡瑋珊譯,1999,知識管理,台北:中國生產力中心。 26.袁建中與劉俊雄,1997,「衡量國家技術能力之研究」,科技管理學刊,2卷1期,pp. 57-73。 27.馬曉雲,2000,知識管理實務應用,華彩軟體。 28.唐富藏,1990,投資計劃評估,台北:華泰書局。 29.唐郁靖,1996,「台灣地區中、美、日企業人力資源管理策略之研究」,中央大學人力資源管理所未出版碩士論文。 30.高惠松,2001,「平衡計分卡之規劃與設計-以基隆港務局為例」,國立海洋大學航管理學系未出版碩士論文。 31.黃俊英,1998,多變量分析第六版,台北:華泰文化事業公司。 32.許總雲,1995,「服務業中知識建構與維持策略之研究」,輔仁大學管理學研究所未出版碩士論文。 33.許強,1998,「吸收能力網路關係與企業創新之關聯」,政治大學企研所未出版碩士論文。 34.許史金,2001,知識管理推行實務,台北:商周出版社。 35.辜輝趁,2000,「企業電子化知識管理策略研究」,國立師範大學工業教育學系未出版博士論文。 36.陳昱維,1999,「消費品產業中知識管理之研究:以寶僑與聯合利華為例」,政大企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。 37.陳昭宏,1999,「創業投資公司投資高科技產業模糊多準則評估之研究:以生物科技產業為例」,1999年科技管理研討會論文集,高雄,中山大學管理學院。 38.陳文賢,1998,「兩岸三地資訊管理的學術與應用」,兩岸三地中小企業經營管理與發展學術研討會論文集。 39.陳孟修、盧淵源,1999,「研發人員的工作生活品質與人格特質對其創新績效的影響之研究」,1999年科技管理研討會論文集,高雄,中山大學管理學院。 40.張智寧,2000,「不同策略群組特性下員工績效評估與組織績效之關聯性研究」,靜宜大學企業管理學系未出版碩士論文。 41.張彥輝、許牧彥,1999,「影響廠商選擇環境科技創新類型之因素」,1999年科技管理研討會論文集。 42.張翠娟,1992,「員工績效制度與功能之研究」,,國立台灣大學政治研究所未出版碩士論文。 43.張紹勳,1995,SAS For Windows統計分析-高等統計,台北:松崗電腦圖書資料股份有限公司。 44.隋德蘭,2001,「公務組織知識管理與績效關係之研究-以高雄市政府採購部門對政府採購法知識管理為例」,義守大學管理研究所未出版碩士碩文。 45.黃美卿,1998,「銀行業關係價值-忠誠度模式之實證研究」,國立雲林科技大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。 46.楊子江、王美音譯,1997,創新求勝,台北:遠流出版公司。 47.楊子葆,1998,新市鎮引進軌道運輸系統之選擇評估,海峽兩岸都市(新市鎮)公共工程暨食物研討會論文集。 48.溫元昌,1998,「技術特性、技術能力與技術移轉途徑關係之研究」,中正大學企研所未出版碩士論文。 49.蔡兆哲,1995,「企業技術能力,海外投機動機方式,投資環境與技術移動績效關係之研究」,輔仁大學管理學研究所未出版碩士論文。 50.蔡宏銘,2000,「台灣地區網路服務業的績效評估與薪酬制度之研究」,朝陽科技大學工業工程與管理系未出版碩士論文。 51.蔡明宏 劉曉雯,1998,「創造力工作環境特質與資訊科技特徵對組織創新之影嚮─本國數位文化產業之實証分析」,第七屆產業管理研討會論文集,pp.133-167。 52.蔡敦浩,1999,「組織創新能耐、知識管理與組織學習:台灣三家中小企業的個案研究」,1999科技管理年會暨研討會論文集,高雄,中山大學管理學院。 53.黎士群,1998,「組織公平、信任與知識分享行為之關係性研究─以Unix系統管理人員為例」,銘傳大學管科所未出版碩士論文。 54.劉京偉,2000,知識管理的第一本書,台北:商周出版社。 55.劉仁傑、謝章志(1999),臺灣中小型機械廠協力網路結構之探討,16(3),pp. 427-450。 56.劉權瑩,1999,「資訊服務業知識管理之研究:以台灣HP與台灣IBM為例」,政治大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。 57.劉常勇,2000,知識管理的策略,http://www.cme.org.tw/know/。 58.劉常勇,1997,「技術資源管理能力對新產品開發績效影響之研究」,中華民國科技管理研討會論文集,pp.83-89,高雄:中山大學管理學院。 59.鄭仲興,2000,「組織間學習機制的建立與學習績效之研究-以廠商參與工研院科技專案為例」,義守大學管理科學研究所未出版碩士論文。 60.謝松樺,1998,「資料倉儲建構之管理課題─以電信業為例」,銘傳大學管科所未出版碩士論文。 61.謝甄佩,1998,「產業合作網路與知識流通之研究─以IC製造業為例」,政治大學企研所未出版碩士論文。 62.謝耀龍,1999,「台灣壽險業關係行銷理念與實際策略運用之比較研究」,台灣壽險行銷策略剖析論文集,華泰書局,頁55-78。 63.譚大純與陳博舜,1998,「組織創造知識之研究:以H公司為例」,1998年科技管理研討會論文集,桃園,元智大學管理學院。 64.譚大純、劉廷揚、蔡明洲,1999,「知識管理文獻之回顧與分類」,中華民國科技管理研討會論文集(第一集),pp.623-636。 65.譚大純與汪昭芬,2000,「策略觀點之知識管理:文獻回顧與分類」,2000年科技管理年會暨研討會論文集,新竹交通大學科技管理研究所。 66.譚大純,2001,「如何衡量知識管理之績效?」,會計研究月刊,Vol.185,pp. 68-73。 67.譚大純,2001,「衡量知識管理績效之指標」,屏東科技大學,第三屆永續發展研討會論文集。 68.譚大純,2001,「知識管理文獻之回顧與前瞻-以知識作業及知識策略為分類基礎」,管理評論,第二十卷第四期,pp.93-135。 69.譚大純、劉廷揚、蘇政宏,2001,「如何為教育組織評估知識管理之績效?」,pp. 118-129,第一屆知識經濟時代教育管理理論與實務學術研討會論文集。 70.蘇佳明,1998,「事業策略、製造策略、人力資源管理策略與組織績效關係之研究」,中央大學人力資源管理研究所未出版碩士論文。 71.蘇明芳,1999,「航空公司與旅行業間關係銷售行為之研究」,文化大學觀光事業研究所未出版碩士論文。 【英文部份】 1.Allee, D. 1997. “12 Principles of Knowledge Management”, Training and Development, 51(11), pp.71-74. 2.Adams, M. E., Day, G. S. & Doughherty, D. 1998. “Enhancing New Product Development Performance: An Organizational Learning Perspective”, Journal of Production Innovation Management, Vol. 15, pp. 403-422. 3.Baker, W. E. & Sinkula, J. M. 1999. “The Synergistc Effect of Market Orientation and Learning Orientation on Organizational Performnce”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(4), pp. 411-427. 4.Badaracco, J. 1991. The Knowledge Link: How Firms Compete through strategic Alliances, Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School. 5.Bertels, L. 1996. “What is Knowledge Management,” http://www.km-forum.org/ what_ is.htm. 6.Betz, F. 1993. “Managing Technology Competing Through New Ventures”, Innovation, and Corporate Research, Prentice Hall. 7.Bierly, P. & Chakrabarti, A. 1996. “Generic Knowledge Strategues in the US Pharmaceutical Industry”, Strategic Management Journal, 17 (Winter), pp. 123-135. 8.Birch, C. 1998. “Balanced scorecard points to wins for small firms,” Australian CPA, Melbourne, July, Vol. 68(6), pp. 43-46. 9.Brown, J. S. & Duguid, P. 1998. “Organizing Knowledge”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 90-111. 10.Blumentritt, R. & Johnston, R. 1999. “Towards a Strategy for Knowledge Management”, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 11(3), pp. 287-301. 11.Campbell, J. P. 1997. “Management by Enlightened Self-interest: Technique Versus Kindness”, Health Care Supervisor, 16(2), pp. 48-57. 12.Campbell, D. P. 1970. Take the Risk to Creativity and Get off your Dead End, Allen Texas: Argus. 13.Campbell, D. R. & Fiske, D. W. 1959. “Convergent and Discriminant Validation by Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix,” Psychological Bulletin, 56, pp. 81-105. 14.Chow, W. C. & Haddad, M. 1997. “Applying the balance scorecard to small companies”, Management Accounting, pp.21-27. 15.Cohen, D. 1998. “Toward a Knowledge Context: Repot on the First Annual UC Berkeley Forum on Knowledge and the Firm”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 22-39. 16.Cohen, W. M. & Leventhal, D. A. 1990. “Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), pp. 128-132. 17.Cooper, R. G. & Kleinschmidt, E. J. 1985. “The Impact of Export Strategy on Export Sales Performance”, Journal of International Business Studies, 16(Spring), pp. 37-55. 18.Davenport, T. H. 1997. “Ten Principles of Knowledge Management and Four Case Studies”, Knowledge and Process Management, 4(3), pp. 187-208. 19.Davenport, T. H. & Klahr, P. 1998. “Managing Customer Support Knowledge,” California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 193-208. 20.Davenport, T. H. & Pursak, L. 1998. Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know, Harvard Business School Press. 21.David, F. R. 1998. Strategic Management, 6th edition, NJ: Prentice Hall. 22.Denham, R. 1996. “What is Knowledge Management,” http://www.km-orum.org/. 23.Drucker, P. F. 1993. Post-Capitalist Society, Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. 24.Drucker, P. F. 1969. The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines to Our Changing Society, New York: Harper & Row. 25.Duncan, T. 1995. “New Sides of IMC, in Marketing Communication Strategies Today and Tomorrow: Integration, Allocation, and Interactive Technologies,” Marketing Science Institute Report No. 94-109, Corrine Faure and Lisa Klein, eds. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute, pp.37-39. 26.Fahey, L. & Prusak, L. 1998. “The Eleven Deadliest Sins of Knowledge Management”, California Management Review, 40(3), Spring, pp. 265-276. 27.Freeman, J. & Barley, S. 1990. “The Strategic Analysis of Interorganizatinal Relations in Biotechnology''.in Loveridge”, R and P. Martyn (eds.), The Strategic Management of Technological Innovation, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 127-156. 28.Ganesan, S. 1994. “Determinants of Long-Term Orientation in Buyer-Seller Relationships”, Journal of Marketing, 58, pp. 1-19. 29.Garbarino, E. & Johnson, M. S. 1999. “The Different Roles of Satisfaction, Trust, and Commitment in Customer Relationships”, Journal of Marketing, 63, pp. 70-87. 30.Gates, B. 1999. Business at the Speed of Thought: Succeeding in the Digital Economy, Warner Books 31.Glazer, R. 1996. “Measuring the Knower: Towards a Theory of Knowledge Eguity”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 175-194. 32.Grant, R. M. 1997. “A Knowledge-base view of the firm: Implication for management practice”, Long Range Planning, 30(3), pp. 450-454. 33.Grant, R. M. 1996. “Toward to a Knowledge-Based Theory of the Firm”, Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter), pp. 109-122. 34.Garrity, E. J., & Siplor, J. C. 1994. “Multimedia as a Vehicle for Knowledge Modeling in Expert System”, Expert System with Application, 7(3), pp.397-406. 35.Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tathama, R. L. & Black, W. C. 1998. Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings, New York: Macmillan. 36.Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C. K. 1994. Competing for The Future-breakthrough Strategies for Seizing Control of Your industry and Creating the Markets of Tomorrow, Harvard Business School Press. 37.Hansen, M. T. and B. von Oetinger 2001. “Introducing T-shaped Managers: Knowledge Management''s Next Generation”, Harvard Business Review, March, pp. 106-116. 38.Hansen, M. T., Nohria, N., & Tierney, T. 1999. “What’s Your Strategy for Managing Knowledge?”, Harvard Business Review, March-April, pp. 106-116. 39.Hargadon, A. B. 1998. “Firms as Knowledge Brokers: Lessons in Pursuing Continuoys Innovation”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 209-227. 40.Hedlund, G. 1994. “A Model of Knowledge Management and the N-Form Corporation”, Strategic Management Journal, 15, pp. 73-90. 41.Hills, C. W. & Jones, G. R. 1998. Strategic Management Theory, 4th edition, Houghton Mifflin Company. 42.Holtshouse, D. 1998. “Knowledge Research Issues”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 277-280. 43.Howells, J. 1996. “Tacit Knowledge, Innovation and Technology Transfer,” Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 8(2), pp. 91-106. 44.Inkpen, A. C. 2000. “Learning Through Joint Ventures: A Framework of Knowledge Acquisition”, Journal of Management Studies, 37(3), pp. 1019-1043. 45.Johnson, H. T.& Kaplan, R. S. 1988. “Management by Accounting Is Not CFO”, Boston, July , 4(7), pp. 6-8. 46.Jones, G. R. 1983. “Forms of control and leader behavior”, Journal of management, 9, pp. 159-172. 47.Kaplan, R. S. 1993. “Implementing the balanced scorecard at FMC Corporation: An interview with Larry D. Brady,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, Sep/Oct, Vol. 71(5), pp. 143-148. 48.Kaplan, R. S. & Norton, D. P. 1992. “The Balanced Scorecard-Measures That Drive Performance”, Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb, pp. 71-79. 49.Kim, W. C. & Mauborgne, R. A. 1997. “Fair Process Managing in the Knowledge Economy”, Harvard Business Review, 75(4), pp. 65-75. 50.Kim, W. C. & Mauborgne, R. A. 1998. “Proceduial Justice, Strategic Decision Making, and the Knowledge Economy,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 19, pp. 323-338. 51.Krogh, G. 1998. “Care in Knowledge Creation”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 133-153. 52.Leonard-Barton, D. 1995. Wellsprings of Knowledge, Harvard. Business School Press, Massachusetts. 53.Leonard, D. & Sensiper, D. 1998. “The Role of Tacit Knowledge In Group Innovation”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 112-131. 54.Li, T. & Calantone, R. J. 1998. “The Impact of Market Knowledge Competence on New Product Advantage: Conceptualization and Empirical Exmination”, Journal of Marketing, 62(4), pp. 13-29. 55.Lincoln, J. R., Ahmadijian, C. L. & Mason, E. 1998. “Organizational Learning and Purchase-supply Relationship in Japan: Hitachi, Matsushita, and Toyota Compared”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 241-264. 56.Machlup, F. 1962. The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States, Princeton, N.J.: Prinection University Press. 57.Madsen, T. K. 1989. “Successful Export Marketing Management: Some Empirical Evidence”, International Marketing Review, 6(4), pp. 41-57. 58.Mathews, J. A. 1999. From National Innovation Systems to National Systems of Learning: The Case of Technology Diffusion Management in East Asia, DRUID summer conference paper. 59.Markus, M. L. & Soh, C. 1993. “Banking on Information Technology: Converting IT Spending into Firm Performance” in Strategic Information Systems Technology Management: Perspectives on Organizational Growth and Competitive Advantage, PA: Idea Group Publishing, pp.375-403. 60.McNichols, T. J. 1972. PolicyMmaking and Executive Action: Cases on Business Policy, 4th Ed, New York: McGraw-Hill. 61.Miles, G., Miles, R., E., Perrone, V. & Edvinsson, L. 1998. “Some Conceptual and Research Barriers to the Utilization of Knowledge”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 281-288. 62.Mowery, D. C. 1988. Collaborative ventures between U.S. and foreign Manufacturing firms: An overview, in Mowery(ed), ''International collaborative venturesin U.S. manufacturing'' allinger Publishing Company, pp. 1-22. 63.Mowery, D. E., & Oxley, J. E. 1996. “Strategic Alliances and Interfirm Knowledge Transfer”, Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter), pp. 77-91. 64.Mowery, D. & Rosenberg, L. 1989. Technology and Pursuit of Economic Groeth, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. 65.Mumford, M. D. 2000. “Managing Creative People: Strategies and Tactics for Innovation.”, Human Resource Management Review, 10(3), pp. 313-351. 66.Nonaka, I. Toyama, R. & Konno, N. 2000. “SECI, Ba and Leadership: A Unified Model of Dynamic Knowledge Ceartion”, Long Range Planning, 33, pp. 5-34. 67.Nonaka, I. Takeuchi H. & Umemoto, K. 1996. “A Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation”, International Journal of Technology Management, 11(7-8), pp. 833-845. 68.Nonaka, I. 1994. “A Dynamic Theory of organizational Knowledge Creation”, Organization Science, 15(1), pp.14-37 69.Nonaka, I. & Konno, N. 1998. “The Concept of "Ba": Building a foundation for Knowledge Creation”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 40-54. 70.Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. 1995. The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies foster Creativity and Innovation for Competitive Advantage, New York: Oxford University Press. 71.Ouintas, P., Lefrere, P. , & Jones, G. 1997. ”Knowledge Management: A strategic Agenda.” Long Range Planning, 30(3), pp. 385-391. 72.O’Connor, G. C. 1998. “Market Learning and Radical Innovation: A Cross Case Comparison of Eight Radical Innovation Projects”, Journal of Innovation Management, 15, pp. 151-166. 73.O’Dell, C. & Grayson, C. J. 1998. “If Only We Knew What We Know: Identification and Transfer of Internal Best Practices”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 154-173. 74.O’Leary, D. 1998. “Knowledge Management Systems: Converting and Connecting,” and “Using AI in Knowledge Management: Knowledge Bases IEEE, Intelligent Systems Journal, May/June, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. 75.Papows, J. 1999. “Market leadership in information age,” William Morris Agency. 76.Peters, L. & Fusfeld, H. 1982. University- Industry Research Relationships, National Science Foundation, USA. 77.Pfeffer, J. & Veiga, J. F. 1999. “Putting people first for organization success”, Academy of Mmanagement Exective, 13(2), pp. 37-48. 78.Prahalad, C. K. & Hamel, G. 1995. Competing for future, (顧淑馨譯,競爭大未來,台北:智庫公司)。 79.Porter, M. E. 1980. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, New York: Free Press. 80.Powell, W. W. 1998. “Learning From Collaboration: Knowledge and Networks in the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 228-240. 81.Quintas, P., Leferere, P. & Jones, G. 1997. “Knowledge Management: A Strategic Agenda,” Long Range Planning, 30(3), pp. 385-391. 82.Quinn, J. B. 1992. Intelligent Enterprise: A Knowledge and Service Based Paradigm for Industry, New York: The Free Press. 83.Quinn, J.B. Anderson, P. & Finkelstein, S. 1966. “Managing Professional Intellect: Making the Most of the Best”, Harvard Business Review, March, Vol. 30(3), pp. 71-80. 84.Robbins, S. P. 1990. Management. New York: Prentice Hall Inc. 85.Ruggles, R. 1998. “The state of the Notion: Knowledge management in Practice”, California Management Review, pp.80-89. 86.Ruggles, R. 1998. “The State of Notion: Knowledge Management in Practice”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 80-89. 87.Sarvary, M. 1998. “Knowledge Management and Competition in the Consulting Industry”, California Management Review, 40(2), pp. 95-107. 88.Sbragia, R. 1984. “Clarity of Manager Roles and Performance of R&D Multidisciplinary Projects in Matrix Structures.”, R & D Management, Apr, 14(2), pp.113-127. 89.Scott, G. M. 1998. “The New Age of New Product Development: Are We There Yet?” R&D Management, 28(4), pp. 225-235. 90.Scott, R. K. 1992. “Creative Employees: A Challenge to managers”, The Journal of Creative Behavior, 29(1), pp. 64-71. 91.Senge, P. 1990. The Fifth Discipline, NY : Double-day. 92.Shariff, M.N. 1988. “Basis of Techno-economic Policy Analysis”, Science and Public, 15(4), pp.217-229. 93.Smith, R. L. & Wolfe, P. W. 1995. “Implication of Client/Server Systems on the Virtual Corporation”, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 29, pp. 95-102. 94.Stewart, T. A. 1998. Intellectual Capital,(宋偉航譯,智慧資本-資訊時代的企業基利,台北:智庫公司。 95.Teece, D. J. 1998. “Capturing Value from Knowledge Assets: The New Economy, Markets For Know-How, And Intangible Assets”, California Management Review, 40(3), pp. 55-79. 96.Teece, D. J. Pisano G. & Shuen, A. 1997. “Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management.”, Strategic Managemet Journal, 18(7), pp. 509-533. 97.Teece, D. J. 1986. “Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implication for Integration, Collaboration, Licensing and Public Policy.”, Research Policy, December, pp. 285-305. 98.Tsoukas, H. 1996. “The Firm as a Distributed Knowledge System: A Constructionist Approach”, Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter), pp. 11-25. 99.Turvani, M. 2001. “Microfoundations of Knowledge Dynamics Within The Firm.”, Industry and Innovation, 8(3), pp. 309-323. 100.Tushman, M. L. & Nadler, D. A. 1986. “Organizing for Innovation”, California Management Review, 28(3),Spring, pp.74-92. 101.Tushman, M. L. & O’Reilly, C. A. 1997. Winning Through Innovation: A Practical Guide to Leading Organizational Change and Renewal, MA: Harvard Business School Press 102.Watson, H. J. & Haley, B. J. 1997. “Data Warehousing: A frame Work and Survey of Current Practices”, Journal of Data Warehouseing, Vol. 2(1), pp.193-210. 103.Weill, B. M. P. 1993. “Improving Business and Information Strategy Alignment: Learning from the Banking Industry”, IBM Systems Journal, 32, pp.162. 104.Williamson, O. E. 1975. Markets and Hierarchies, Free Press, New York. 105.Zack, M. H. 1999. “Developing a Knowledge Strategy”, California Management Review, 41(3), pp. 125-145.