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Title
Observational studies on smoking and risk of hay fever and asthma have shown inconsistent results. However, observational studies may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as markers of exposure...
Observational studies on smoking and risk of hay fever and asthma have shown inconsistent results. However, observational studies may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as markers of exposure...
Observational studies on smoking and risk of hay fever and asthma have shown inconsistent results. However, observational studies may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as markers of exposure...
Here we evaluated the performance of a large set of serum biomarkers for the prediction of rapid progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We used a case–control design nested within a prospective cohort of patient...
Zhou, Bin;Bentham, James;Di Cesare, Mariachiara;Bixby, Honor;Danaei, Goodarz;Hajifathalian, Kaveh;Taddei, Cristina;Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M;Djalalinia, Shirin;Khatibzadeh, Shahab;Lugero, Charles;Peykari, Niloofar;Zhang, Wan Zhu;Bennett, James;Bilano, Ver;Stevens, Gretchen A;Cowan, Melanie J;Riley, Leanne M;Chen, Zhengming;Hambleton, Ian R;Jackson, Rod T;Kengne, Andre Pascal;Khang, Young-Ho;Laxmaiah, Avula;Liu, Jing;Malekzadeh, Reza;Neuhauser, Hannelore K;Sorić, Maroje;Starc, Gregor;Sundström, Johan;Woodward, Mark;Ezzati, Majid;Abarca-Gómez, Leandra;Abdeen, Ziad A;Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M;Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin;Adams, Robert J;Aekplakorn, Wichai;Afsana, Kaosar;Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A;Agyemang, Charles;Ahmad, Noor Ani;Ahmadvand, Alireza;Ahrens, Wolfgang;Ajlouni, Kamel;Akhtaeva, Nazgul;Al-Raddadi, Rajaa;Ali, Mohamed M;Ali, Osman;Alkerwi, Ala'a;Aly, Eman;Amarapurkar, Deepak N;Amouyel, Philippe;Amuzu, Antoinette;Andersen, Lars Bo;Anderssen, Sigmund A;Ängquist, Lars H;Anjana, Ranjit Mohan;Ansong, Daniel;Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer;Araújo, Joana;Ariansen, Inger;Aris, Tahir;Arlappa, Nimmathota;Arveiler, Dominique;Aryal, Krishna K;Aspelund, Thor;Assah, Felix K;Assunção, Maria Cecília F;Avdicová, Mária;Azevedo, Ana;Azizi, Fereidoun;Babu, Bontha V;Bahijri, Suhad;Balakrishna, Nagalla;Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed;Banach, Maciej;Bandosz, Piotr;Banegas, José R;Barbagallo, Carlo M;Barceló, Alberto;Barkat, Amina;Barros, Aluisio J D;Barros, Mauro V;Bata, Iqbal;Batieha, Anwar M;Batyrbek, Assembekov;Baur, Louise A;Beaglehole, Robert;Romdhane, Habiba Ben;Benet, Mikhail;Benson, Lowell S;Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio;Bernotiene, Gailute;Bettiol, Heloisa;Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor;Bharadwaj, Sumit;Bhargava, Santosh K;Bi, Yufang;Bikbov, Mukharram;Bista, Bihungum;Bjerregaard, Peter;Bjertness, Espen;Bjertness, Marius B;Björkelund, Cecilia;Blokstra, Anneke;Bo, Simona;Bobak, Martin;Boeing, Heiner;Boggia, Jose G;Boissonnet, Carlos P;Bongard, Vanina;Borchini, Rossana;Bovet, Pascal;Braeckman, Lutgart;Brajkovich, Imperia;Branca, Francesco;Breckenkamp, Juergen;Brenner, Hermann;Brewster, Lizzy M;Bruno, Graziella;Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as);Bugge, Anna;Burns, Con;Bursztyn, Michael;de León, Antonio Cabrera;Cacciottolo, Joseph;Cai, Hui;Cameron, Christine;Can, Günay;Cândido, Ana Paula C;Capuano, Vincenzo;Cardoso, Viviane C;Carlsson, Axel C;Carvalho, Maria J;Casanueva, Felipe F;Casas, Juan-Pablo;Caserta, Carmelo A;Chamukuttan, Snehalatha;Chan, Angelique W;Chan, Queenie;Chaturvedi, Himanshu K;Chaturvedi, Nishi;Chen, Chien-Jen;Chen, Fangfang;Chen, Huashuai;Chen, Shuohua;Chen, Zhengming;Cheng, Ching-Yu;Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui;Chetrit, Angela;Chiolero, Arnaud;Chiou, Shu-Ti;Chirita-Emandi, Adela;Chirlaque, María-Dolores;Cho, Belong;Cho, Yumi;Christofaro, Diego G;Chudek, Jerzy;Cifkova, Renata;Cinteza, Eliza;Claessens, Frank;Clays, Els;Concin, Hans;Cooper, Cyrus;Cooper, Rachel;Coppinger, Tara C;Costanzo, Simona;Cottel, Dominique;Cowell, Chris;Craig, Cora L;Crujeiras, Ana B;Cruz, Juan J;D'Arrigo, Graziella;d'Orsi, Eleonora;Dallongeville, Jean;Damasceno, Albertino;Danaei, Goodarz;Dankner, Rachel;Dantoft, Thomas M;Dauchet, Luc;Davletov, Kairat;De Backer, Guy;De Bacquer, Dirk;de Gaetano, Giovanni;De Henauw, Stefaan;de Oliveira, Paula Duarte;De Smedt, Delphine;Deepa, Mohan;Dehghan, Abbas;Delisle, Hélène;Deschamps, Valérie;Dhana, Klodian;Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F;Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares;Diaz, Alejandro;Dickerson, Ty T;Djalalinia, Shirin;Do, Ha T P;Donfrancesco, Chiara;Donoso, Silvana P;Döring, Angela;Dorobantu, Maria;Doua, Kouamelan;Drygas, Wojciech;Dulskiene, Virginija;Džakula, Aleksandar;Dzerve, Vilnis;Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta;Eggertsen, Robert;Ekelund, Ulf;El Ati, Jalila;Elliott, Paul;Elosua, Roberto;Erasmus, Rajiv T;Erem, Cihangir;Eriksen, Louise;Eriksson, Johan G;Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge;Evans, Alun;Faeh, David;Fall, Caroline H;Farzadfar, Farshad;Felix-Redondo, Francisco J;Ferguson, Trevor S;Fernandes, Romulo A;Fernández-Bergés, Daniel;Ferrante, Daniel;Ferrari, Marika;Ferreccio, Catterina;Ferrieres, Jean;Finn, Joseph D;Fischer, Krista;Föger, Bernhard;Foo, Leng Huat;Forslund, Ann-Sofie;Forsner, Maria;Fouad, Heba M;Francis, Damian K;do Carmo Franco, Maria;Franco, Oscar H;Frontera, Guillermo;Fuchs, Flavio D;Fuchs, Sandra C;Fujita, Yuki;Furusawa, Takuro;Gaciong, Zbigniew;Galvano, Fabio;Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli;Gareta, Dickman;Garnett, Sarah P;Gaspoz, Jean-Michel;Gasull, Magda;Gates, Louise;Geleijnse, Johanna M;Ghasemian, Anoosheh;Ghimire, Anup;Giampaoli, Simona;Gianfagna, Francesco;Gill, Tiffany K;Giovannelli, Jonathan;Goldsmith, Rebecca A;Gonçalves, Helen;Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela;González-Rivas, Juan P;Gorbea, Mariano Bonet;Gottrand, Frederic;Graff-Iversen, Sidsel;Grafnetter, Dušan;Grajda, Aneta;Grammatikopoulou, Maria G;Gregor, Ronald D;Grodzicki, Tomasz;Grøntved, Anders;Grosso, Giuseppe;Gruden, Gabriella;Grujic, Vera;Gu, Dongfeng;Guan, Ong Peng;Gudmundsson, Elias F;Gudnason, Vilmundur;Guerrero, Ramiro;Guessous, Idris;Guimaraes, Andre L;Gulliford, Martin C;Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna;Gunter, Marc;Gupta, Prakash C;Gupta, Rajeev;Gureje, Oye;Gurzkowska, Beata;Gutierrez, Laura;Gutzwiller, Felix;Hadaegh, Farzad;Halkjær, Jytte;Hambleton, Ian R;Hardy, Rebecca;Hari Kumar, Rachakulla;Hata, Jun;Hayes, Alison J;He, Jiang;He, Yuna;Elisabeth, Marleen;Henriques, Ana;Cadena, Leticia Hernandez;Herrala, Sauli;Heshmat, Ramin;Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani;Ho, Sai Yin;Ho, Suzanne C;Hobbs, Michael;Hofman, Albert;Dinc, Gonul Horasan;Horimoto, Andrea R V R;Hormiga, Claudia M;Horta, Bernardo L;Houti, Leila;Howitt, Christina;Htay, Thein Thein;Htet, Aung Soe;Than Htike, Maung Maung;Hu, Yonghua;Huerta, José María;Huisman, Martijn;Husseini, Abdullatif S;Huybrechts, Inge;Hwalla, Nahla;Iacoviello, Licia;Iannone, Anna G;Ibrahim, Mohsen M;Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim;Ikeda, Nayu;Ikram, M Arfan;Irazola, Vilma E;Islam, Muhammad;al-Safi Ismail, Aziz;Ivkovic, Vanja;Iwasaki, Masanori;Jackson, Rod T;Jacobs, Jeremy M;Jaddou, Hashem;Jafar, Tazeen;Jamrozik, Konrad;Janszky, Imre;Jasienska, Grazyna;Jelaković, Ana;Jelaković, Bojan;Jennings, Garry;Jeong, Seung-lyeal;Jiang, Chao Qiang;Joffres, Michel;Johansson, Mattias;Jokelainen, Jari J;Jonas, Jost B;Jørgensen, Torben;Joshi, Pradeep;Jóźwiak, Jacek;Juolevi, Anne;Jurak, Gregor;Jureša, Vesna;Kaaks, Rudolf;Kafatos, Anthony;Kajantie, Eero O;Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra;Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi;Karki, Khem B;Kasaeian, Amir;Katz, Joanne;Kauhanen, Jussi;Kaur, Prabhdeep;Kavousi, Maryam;Kazakbaeva, Gyulli;Keil, Ulrich;Boker, Lital Keinan;Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka;Kelishadi, Roya;Kemper, Han C G;Kengne, Andre P;Kerimkulova, Alina;Kersting, Mathilde;Key, Timothy;Khader, Yousef Saleh;Khalili, Davood;Khang, Young-Ho;Khateeb, Mohammad;Khaw, Kay-Tee;Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula;Kiechl, Stefan;Killewo, Japhet;Kim, Jeongseon;Kim, Yeon-Yong;Klumbiene, Jurate;Knoflach, Michael;Kolle, Elin;Kolsteren, Patrick;Korrovits, Paul;Koskinen, Seppo;Kouda, Katsuyasu;Kowlessur, Sudhir;Koziel, Slawomir;Kriemler, Susi;Kristensen, Peter Lund;Krokstad, Steinar;Kromhout, Daan;Kruger, Herculina S;Kubinova, Ruzena;Kuciene, Renata;Kuh, Diana;Kujala, Urho M;Kulaga, Zbigniew;Krishna Kumar, R;Kurjata, Pawel;Kusuma, Yadlapalli S;Kuulasmaa, Kari;Kyobutungi, Catherine;Laatikainen, Tiina;Lachat, Carl;Lam, Tai Hing;Landrove, Orlando;Lanska, Vera;Lappas, Georg;Larijani, Bagher;Laugsand, Lars E;Laxmaiah, Avula;Le Nguyen Bao, Khanh;Le, Tuyen D;Leclercq, Catherine;Lee, Jeannette;Lee, Jeonghee;Lehtimäki, Terho;León-Muñoz, Luz M;Levitt, Naomi S;Li, Yanping;Lilly, Christa L;Lim, Wei-Yen;Lima-Costa, M Fernanda;Lin, Hsien-Ho;Lin, Xu;Lind, Lars;Linneberg, Allan;Lissner, Lauren;Litwin, Mieczyslaw;Liu, Jing;Lorbeer, Roberto;Lotufo, Paulo A;Lozano, José Eugenio;Luksiene, Dalia;Lundqvist, Annamari;Lunet, Nuno;Lytsy, Per;Ma, Guansheng;Ma, Jun;Machado-Coelho, George L L;Machi, Suka;Maggi, Stefania;Magliano, Dianna J;Magriplis, Emmanuella;Majer, Marjeta;Makdisse, Marcia;Malekzadeh, Reza;Malhotra, Rahul;Mallikharjuna Rao, Kodavanti;Malyutina, Sofia;Manios, Yannis;Mann, Jim I;Manzato, Enzo;Margozzini, Paula;Marques-Vidal, Pedro;Marques, Larissa Pruner;Marrugat, Jaume;Martorell, Reynaldo;Mathiesen, Ellisiv B;Matijasevich, Alicia;Matsha, Tandi E;Mbanya, Jean Claude N;Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J;McFarlane, Shelly R;McGarvey, Stephen T;McLachlan, Stela;McLean, Rachael M;McLean, Scott B;McNulty, Breige A;Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia;Medzioniene, Jurate;Meirhaeghe, Aline;Meisinger, Christa;Menezes, Ana Maria B;Menon, Geetha R;Meshram, Indrapal I;Metspalu, Andres;Meyer, Haakon E;Mi, Jie;Mikkel, Kairit;Miller, Jody C;Minderico, Cláudia S;Francisco, Juan;Miranda, J Jaime;Mirrakhimov, Erkin;Mišigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta;Modesti, Pietro A;Mohamed, Mostafa K;Mohammad, Kazem;Mohammadifard, Noushin;Mohan, Viswanathan;Mohanna, Salim;Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli;Møllehave, Line T;Møller, Niels C;Molnár, Dénes;Momenan, Amirabbas;Mondo, Charles K;Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K;Moon, Jin Soo;Moreira, Leila B;Morejon, Alain;Moreno, Luis A;Morgan, Karen;Moschonis, George;Mossakowska, Malgorzata;Mostafa, Aya;Mota, Jorge;Esmaeel Motlagh, Mohammad;Motta, Jorge;Msyamboza, Kelias P;Mu, Thet Thet;Muiesan, Maria L;Müller-Nurasyid, Martina;Murphy, Neil;Mursu, Jaakko;Musil, Vera;Nabipour, Iraj;Nagel, Gabriele;Naidu, Balkish M;Nakamura, Harunobu;Námešná, Jana;Nang, Ei Ei K;Nangia, Vinay B;Narake, Sameer;Nauck, Matthias;Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria;Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba;Neal, William A;Nenko, Ilona;Neovius, Martin;Nervi, Flavio;Neuhauser, Hannelore K;Nguyen, Chung T;Nguyen, Nguyen D;Nguyen, Quang Ngoc;Nguyen, Quang V;Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis E;Niiranen, Teemu J;Ning, Guang;Ninomiya, Toshiharu;Nishtar, Sania;Noale, Marianna;Noboa, Oscar A;Noorbala, Ahmad Ali;Norat, Teresa;Noto, Davide;Al Nsour, Mohannad;O'Reilly, Dermot;Oda, Eiji;Oehlers, Glenn;Oh, Kyungwon;Ohara, Kumiko;Olinto, Maria Teresa A;Oliveira, Isabel O;Omar, Mohd Azahadi;Onat, Altan;Ong, Sok King;Ono, Lariane M;Ordunez, Pedro;Ornelas, Rui;Osmond, Clive;Ostojic, Sergej M;Ostovar, Afshin;Otero, Johanna A;Overvad, Kim;Owusu-Dabo, Ellis;Paccaud, Fred Michel;Padez, Cristina;Pahomova, Elena;Pajak, Andrzej;Palli, Domenico;Palmieri, Luigi;Pan, Wen-Harn;Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra;Panza, Francesco;Papandreou, Dimitrios;Park, Soon-Woo;Parnell, Winsome R;Parsaeian, Mahboubeh;Patel, Nikhil D;Pecin, Ivan;Pednekar, Mangesh S;Peer, Nasheeta;Peeters, Petra H;Peixoto, Sergio Viana;Peltonen, Markku;Pereira, Alexandre C;Peters, Annette;Petersmann, Astrid;Petkeviciene, Janina;Peykari, Niloofar;Pham, Son Thai;Pigeot, Iris;Pikhart, Hynek;Pilav, Aida;Pilotto, Lorenza;Pitakaka, Freda;Piwonska, Aleksandra;Plans-Rubió, Pedro;Polašek, Ozren;Porta, Miquel;Portegies, Marileen L P;Pourshams, Akram;Poustchi, Hossein;Pradeepa, Rajendra;Prashant, Mathur;Price, Jacqueline F;Puder, Jardena J;Puiu, Maria;Punab, Margus;Qasrawi, Radwan F;Qorbani, Mostafa;Bao, Tran Quoc;Radic, Ivana;Radisauskas, Ricardas;Rahman, Mahfuzar;Raitakari, Olli;Raj, Manu;Ramachandra Rao, Sudha;Ramachandran, Ambady;Ramos, Elisabete;Rampal, Lekhraj;Rampal, Sanjay;Rangel Reina, Daniel A;Redon, Josep;Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M;Ribeiro, Robespierre;Riboli, Elio;Rigo, Fernando;Rinke de Wit, Tobias F;Ritti-Dias, Raphael M;Robinson, Sian M;Robitaille, Cynthia;Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando;del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, María;Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A;Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba;Romaguera, Dora;Ronkainen, Kimmo;Rosengren, Annika;Roy, Joel G R;Rubinstein, Adolfo;Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca;Rutkowski, Marcin;Sabanayagam, Charumathi;Sachdev, Harshpal S;Saidi, Olfa;Sakarya, Sibel;Salanave, Benoit;Salazar Martinez, Eduardo;Salmerón, Diego;Salomaa, Veikko;Salonen, Jukka T;Salvetti, Massimo;Sánchez-Abanto, Jose;Sans, Susana;Santos, Diana A;Santos, Ina S;Nunes dos Santos, Renata;Santos, Rute;Saramies, Jouko L;Sardinha, Luis B;Sarganas, Giselle;Sarrafzadegan, Nizal;Saum, Kai-Uwe;Savva, Savvas;Scazufca, Marcia;Schargrodsky, Herman;Schipf, Sabine;Schmidt, Carsten O;Schöttker, Ben;Schultsz, Constance;Schutte, Aletta E;Sein, Aye Aye;Sen, Abhijit;Senbanjo, Idowu O;Sepanlou, Sadaf G;Sharma, Sanjib K;Shaw, Jonathan E;Shibuya, Kenji;Shin, Dong Wook;Shin, Youchan;Si-Ramlee, Khairil;Siantar, Rosalynn;Sibai, Abla M;Santos Silva, Diego Augusto;Simon, Mary;Simons, Judith;Simons, Leon A;Sjöström, Michael;Skovbjerg, Sine;Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta;Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw;Smeeth, Liam;Smith, Margaret C;Snijder, Marieke B;So, Hung-Kwan;Sobngwi, Eugène;Söderberg, Stefan;Solfrizzi, Vincenzo;Sonestedt, Emily;Song, Yi;Sørensen, Thorkild I A;Soric, Maroje;Jérome, Charles Sossa;Soumare, Aicha;Staessen, Jan A;Starc, Gregor;Stathopoulou, Maria G;Stavreski, Bill;Steene-Johannessen, Jostein;Stehle, Peter;Stein, Aryeh D;Stergiou, George S;Stessman, Jochanan;Stieber, Jutta;Stöckl, Doris;Stocks, Tanja;Stokwiszewski, Jakub;Stronks, Karien;Strufaldi, Maria Wany;Sun, Chien-An;Sundström, Johan;Sung, Yn-Tz;Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul;Sy, Rody G;Shyong Tai, E;Tammesoo, Mari-Liis;Tamosiunas, Abdonas;Tan, Eng Joo;Tang, Xun;Tanser, Frank;Tao, Yong;Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul;Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B;Tautu, Oana-Florentina;Taylor, Anne;Theobald, Holger;Theodoridis, Xenophon;Thijs, Lutgarde;Thuesen, Betina H;Tjonneland, Anne;Tolonen, Hanna K;Tolstrup, Janne S;Topbas, Murat;Topór-Madry, Roman;Tormo, María José;Torrent, Maties;Traissac, Pierre;Trichopoulos, Dimitrios;Trichopoulou, Antonia;Trinh, Oanh T H;Trivedi, Atul;Tshepo, Lechaba;Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K;Tullu, Fikru;Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka;Tuomilehto, Jaakko;Turley, Maria L;Tynelius, Per;Tzourio, Christophe;Ueda, Peter;Ugel, Eunice E;Ulmer, Hanno;Uusitalo, Hannu M T;Valdivia, Gonzalo;Valvi, Damaskini;van der Schouw, Yvonne T;Van Herck, Koen;Van Minh, Hoang;van Rossem, Lenie;Van Schoor, Natasja M;van Valkengoed, Irene G M;Vanderschueren, Dirk;Vanuzzo, Diego;Vatten, Lars;Vega, Tomas;Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo;Veronesi, Giovanni;Monique Verschuren, W M;Verstraeten, Roosmarijn;Victora, Cesar G;Viet, Lucie;Viikari-Juntura, Eira;Vineis, Paolo;Vioque, Jesus;Virtanen, Jyrki K;Visvikis-Siest, Sophie;Viswanathan, Bharathi;Vlasoff, Tiina;Vollenweider, Peter;Voutilainen, Sari;Wade, Alisha N;Wagner, Aline;Walton, Janette;Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohamad;Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon;Wanderley, Rildo S;Wang, Ming-Dong;Wang, Qian;Wang, Ya Xing;Wang, Ying-Wei;Wannamethee, S Goya;Wareham, Nicholas;Wedderkopp, Niels;Weerasekera, Deepa;Whincup, Peter H;Widhalm, Kurt;Widyahening, Indah S;Wiecek, Andrzej;Wijga, Alet H;Wilks, Rainford J;Willeit, Johann;Willeit, Peter;Williams, Emmanuel A;Wilsgaard, Tom;Wojtyniak, Bogdan;Wong-McClure, Roy A;Wong, Justin Y Y;Wong, Tien Yin;Woo, Jean;Woodward, Mark;Giwercman Wu, Aleksander;Wu, Frederick C;Wu, Shouling;Xu, Haiquan;Yan, Weili;Yang, Xiaoguang;Ye, Xingwang;Yiallouros, Panayiotis K;Yoshihara, Akihiro;Younger-Coleman, Novie O;Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi;Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali;Zambon, Sabina;Zampelas, Antonis;Zdrojewski, Tomasz;Zeng, Yi;Zhao, Dong;Zhao, Wenhua;Zheng, Wei;Zheng, Yingfeng;Zhu, Dan;Zhussupov, Baurzhan;Zimmermann, Esther;Cisneros, Julio Zuñiga
Background Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-...